Andrew Douglas Sullivan

PROJECTS: Harlem Jazz

Harlem's jazz clubs create an aura of the age before rock 'n roll and hip-hop. The snug spaces where crowds sit inches from the musicians once featured pioneers such as Duke Ellington and Billie Holiday.

As the popularity of jazz fades, reminders of its influence live in Harlem. Near the Hotel Theresa, where Louis Armstrong slept, a store entices shoppers by adding jazz to its name.

Jazz is woven into Harlem's identity as the epicenter of black culture in the United States.

Now as redevelopment changes Harlem, intimate spots preserve notes of the neighborhood's past and its speakeasy nights.

Tap dancer David Gilmore tries to draw customers into Showman's.
Max Lucas, 98, who once employed Thelonious Monk, gets a warm welcome before performing at Lenox Lounge.
Linda Hutchinson, who calls herself Billie Holiday Jr., readies for her last songs of the night at the Cotton Club.
The Cotton Club Orchestra packs up at the end of the night.
Sedric Choukron prepares his saxophone.
Warming up in the men's room
Marjorie Eliot has hosted jazz shows in her apartment every Sunday for 15 years.
Saxophonist David Lee Jones creates a bluesy backdrop in the American Legion Post's basement bar, where the doorman keeps a sharp eye on the action and guests must sign a register before sitting down.
Seleno Clarke.
Kat Farmer grew up singing in her father's bar, a place she called
Reflected in the piano at his club, Bill Saxton performs in the space that housed a speakeasy and hosted Billie Holiday's debut.
Singer Kay Mori, moonlighting as a bartender at St. Nick's Pub, restocks the bar as a band with David Bowie's drummer Dennis Davis, left, performs late one night.
A trombone student waits in the wings, hoping to be asked to perform with the Melvin Vines Quartet.
Jukebox, Harlem.
Jazz drummer
The neon glows on an empty bar just before closing time at the Cotton Club. Duke Ellington led the house band at the original club from 1927 to 1931 and convinced the owner of the club, bootlegger Owney Madden, to ease restrictions on black customers.